Nurse just wanna have fun.
or maybe one piece but wolf and fox intertwined like one of these?
Dopamine has been recognized as an important modulator of central as well as peripheral physiologic functions in both humans and animals. Dopamine receptors have been identified in a number of organs and tissues, which include several regions within the central nervous system, sympathetic ganglia and postganglionic nerve terminals, various vascular beds, the heart, the gastrointestinal tract, and the kidney. The peripheral dopamine receptors influence cardiovascular and renal function by decreasing afterload and vascular resistance and promoting sodium excretion. Within the kidney, dopamine receptors are present along the nephron, with highest density on proximal tubule epithelial cells. It has been reported that there is a defective dopamine receptor, especially D1 receptor function, in the proximal tubule of various animal models of hypertension as well as in humans with essential hypertension. Recent reports have revealed the site of and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the defect in D1 receptors in hypertension. Moreover, recent studies have also demonstrated that the disruption of various dopamine receptor subtypes and their function produces hypertension in rodents. In this review, we present evidence that dopamine and dopamine receptors play an important role in regulating renal sodium excretion and that defective renal dopamine production and/or dopamine receptor function may contribute to the development of various forms of hypertension.
Since the discovery in 1964 that dopamine produces natriuresis and diuresis (12), a tremendous amount of progress has been made in understanding dopamine-mediated effects on renal and cardiovascular function
Dopamine Deficiency in Human Hypertension.
Deficiency in renal dopamine synthesis and/or secretion has been reported in various forms of human hypertension. Urinary dopamine excretion is lower in salt-sensitive hypertensive patients than in normal subjects or non-salt-sensitive patients on high sodium intake . Suppressed dopaminergic activity has also been shown in the prehypertensive stage of primary hypertension . Reduced dopaminergic activity has also been observed in young normotensive subjects with an apparent family history of hypertension before any evidence of hypertension emerged . The exact mechanism for the renal dopaminergic deficiency in the human primary hypertension is not known. However, a defect in L-dopa-decarboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine, has been reported in a subject with a family history of hypertension . Other studies have shown a decrease in both the renal tubular uptake of L-dopa and the conversion of L-dopa to dopamine in a subgroup of salt-sensitive hypertensive patients . Because the suppression of renal dopaminergic activity has been observed in young normotensives with a family history of hypertension before any manifestation of the disease, it has been suggested that renal dopaminergic deficiency may contribute to the development of hypertension
A transesophageal echocardiogram, or TEE (TOE in the United Kingdom, reflecting the spelling transoesophageal), is an alternative way to perform an echocardiogram. A specialized probe containing an ultrasound transducer at its tip is passed into the patient’s esophagus.This allows image and Doppler evaluation which can be recorded.
It has several advantages and some disadvantages compared to a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE)
In addition to use by cardiologists in outpatient and inpatient settings, TEE can be performed by a cardiac anesthesiologist to evaluate, diagnose, and treat patients in the peri-operative period. Most commonly used during open heart procedures, it can be used in the setting of any operation if the patient’s status warrants it. It is a definitive way to diagnose.
zompiredawn said: i'm bored and you?
Not really. When I get bored, I come here.
Removal and dissection of spinal cord in postmortem examination.
The spinal cord is rarely a point of fine-tuned focus in postmortem examinations, since the primary reason one would die that relates to it is a complete severing. As a severed spinal cord is generally fairly obvious, the nerve bundles don’t require close inspection. However, in full autopsies and criminal investigations, the spinal cord is generally closely inspected, especially if no other cause of death is found.
Postmortem Pathology. Henry L. Cattell, 1906.
Photo reblogged from with 674 notes
My new reaction to everything.
New episode tomorrow at 10:30/9:30c.
Caricatures of Death Personified
From a pre-Revolutionary magazine, first published in Russia in 1906. Illustrations by Boris Kustodiev.
Personifications of death included depictions of the devastating 1906 drought and ensuing famine, and the ravages of cholera, in the midst of revolutionary uprisings in Moscow.
There’s a bit more to this than the title suggests.
In this picture you can see reasonably well how closely adherent the dura is to both the brain and the skull (you can see how close it is to the skull near the bottom of the picture).
*Thanks to my bro for sharing this
I think someone needs to use this “font” to create a “Snellen Vision Chart for Doctors”…
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